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kal plat

Vurrige waek móch ich deilnumme aan waat es 'n insjpiratiebie-einkóms woor neergezatj. 't Ging allemaol euver twieëtaligheid en de toekoms van ós Limburgs. De väölbelaovendj nuuëjendje titel 'Taalkunstenieërs inne dop', woor kaore oppe meule van 'ne opa mit vief kleinkinjer die häör ieëste sjtepkes op 't paedje vanne twieëtaligheid aan 't zètte zeen. Ich hej gènne sjpiet det ich mich hej aangemeldj. 't Vèltj neet mit óm 't allemaol same te vatte in dit kort besjtek. Óm aevel 'n lank verhaol kort te haoje: 'Kal plat'. De sjpraekers enne discussie achteraaf gove genóg argumente óm aannummelik te make det plat kalle mit kinjer zien veurdeile haet.

Twieëtalig opgreuje haet väöl veurdeile die allemaol van doon höbbe mit 't verwèrke van kinnis en informatie, of get gelieërdjer oetgedröktj, cognitief vermoge. Ós geheuge, 't oplosse van probleme, initiatieve numme, raekene en sjrieve, zeen dao zoeë mer get veurbeelde van. 'n Groeët óngerzeuk oet Canada en Zjwitserlandj det in januari gepubliceerdj geit waere, luuëtj zeen det kinjer van twieë jaor, die es zugeling bloeëtgesjtèldj waere aan twieëtaligheid, 'ne dudelike cognitieve veursjpróng höbbe op kinjer van dae laeftied die mer in ein taal opgreuje (1).

En det is nog neet alles. In december wurtj 'n groeët Italiaans óngerzeuk gepubliceerdj det luuëtj zeen det twieëtaligheid de versjiensjele van dementie mit 'n jaor of veer vertraogdj (2). Dees resultate bevestige eder óngerzeuk oet Sjotlandj (3). Die Sjotte zeen wiejer gegange mit óngerzeuke en publiceerdje dizze maondj det de kans óm nao 'n besjlaag weer redelik normaal te kinne gaon kalle bie eintalige patiënte 1 op 5 en bie twieëtalige 2 op 5 is (4). Waat al die óngerzeuke aangaeve is det de cognitieve vermoges van vreug verworve twieëtaligheid zoeë häör veurdeile höbbe. Op zich Limburgs gezagdj: 'kal plat, kal plat mit kinjer'. Radio, televisie, creche en sjoeël doon de res.

© jan sjure, 27 november 2015

 

aangehaoldje literatuur

  1. Crivello C, Kuzyk O, Rodrigues M, Friend M, Zesiger P, Poulin-Dubois D.
    The effects of bilingual growth on toddlers' executive function.
    Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 2016; 141 (1): 121- 132.

    ABSTRACT:
    The mastery of two languages provides bilingual speakers with cognitive benefits over monolinguals, particularly on cognitive flexibility and selective attention. However, extant research is limited to comparisons between monolinguals and bilinguals at a single point in time. This study investigated whether growth in bilingual proficiency, as shown by an increased number of translation equivalents (TEs) over a 7-month period, improves executive function. We hypothesized that bilingual toddlers with a larger increase of TEs would have more practice in switching across lexical systems, boosting executive function abilities. Expressive vocabulary and TEs were assessed at 24 and 31months of age. A battery of tasks, including conflict, delay, and working memory tasks, was administered at 31months. As expected, we observed a task-specific advantage in inhibitory control in bilinguals. More important, within the bilingual group, larger increases in the number of TEs predicted better performance on conflict tasks but not on delay tasks. This unique longitudinal design confirms the relation between executive function and early bilingualism.


  2. Perani D, Abutalebi J.
    Bilingualism, dementia, cognitive and neural reserve.
    Current Opinion in Neurology 2015; 28(6): 618-625.

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
    We discuss the role of bilingualism as a source of cognitive reserve and we propose the putative neural mechanisms through which lifelong bilingualism leads to a neural reserve that delays the onset of dementia.
    RECENT FINDINGS:
    Recent findings highlight that the use of more than one language affects the human brain in terms of anatomo-structural changes. It is noteworthy that recent evidence from different places and cultures throughout the world points to a significant delay of dementia onset in bilingual/multilingual individuals. This delay has been reported not only for Alzheimer's dementia and its prodromal mild cognitive impairment phase, but also for other dementias such as vascular and fronto-temporal dementia, and was found to be independent of literacy, education and immigrant status.
    SUMMARY:
    Lifelong bilingualism represents a powerful cognitive reserve delaying the onset of dementia by approximately 4 years. As to the causal mechanism, because speaking more than one language heavily relies upon executive control and attention, brain systems handling these functions are more developed in bilinguals resulting in increases of gray and white matter densities that may help protect from dementia onset. These neurocognitive benefits are even more prominent when second language proficiency and exposure are kept high throughout life.


  3. Alladi S, Bak TH, Duggirala V, Surampudi B, Shailaja M, Shukla AK, Chaudhuri JR, Kaul S.
    Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status.
    Neurology 2013: 81(22): 1938-1944.

    OBJECTIVE:
    The purpose of the study was to determine the association between bilingualism and age at onset of dementia and its subtypes, taking into account potential confounding factors.
    METHODS:
    Case records of 648 patients with dementia (391 of them bilingual) diagnosed in a specialist clinic were reviewed. The age at onset of first symptoms was compared between monolingual and bilingual groups. The influence of number of languages spoken, education, occupation, and other potentially interacting variables was examined.
    RESULTS:
    Overall, bilingual patients developed dementia 4.5 years later than the monolingual ones. A significant difference in age at onset was found across Alzheimer disease dementia as well as frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia, and was also observed in illiterate patients. There was no additional benefit to speaking more than 2 languages. The bilingual effect on age at dementia onset was shown independently of other potential confounding factors such as education, sex, occupation, and urban vs rural dwelling of subjects.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    This is the largest study so far documenting a delayed onset of dementia in bilingual patients and the first one to show it separately in different dementia subtypes. It is the first study reporting a bilingual advantage in those who are illiterate, suggesting that education is not a sufficient explanation for the observed difference. The findings are interpreted in the context of the bilingual advantages in attention and executive functions.


  4. Alladi S, Bak TH, Mekala S, Rajan A, Chaudhuri JR, Mioshi E, Krovvidi R, Surampudi B, Duggirala V, Kaul S.
    Impact of bilingualism on cognitive outcome after stroke.
    Stroke 2015; Nov 19: e-publication ahead of print.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
    Bilingualism has been associated with slower cognitive aging and a later onset of dementia. In this study, we aimed to determine whether bilingualism also influences cognitive outcome after stroke.
    METHODS:
    We examined 608 patients with ischemic stroke from a large stroke registry and studied the role of bilingualism in predicting poststroke cognitive impairment in the absence of dementia.
    RESULTS:
    A larger proportion of bilinguals had normal cognition compared with monolinguals (40.5% versus 19.6%; P<0.0001), whereas the reverse was noted in patients with cognitive impairment, including vascular dementia and vascular mild cognitive impairment (monolinguals 77.7% versus bilinguals 49.0%; P<0.0009). There were no differences in the frequency of aphasia (monolinguals 11.8% versus bilinguals 10.5%; P=0.354). Bilingualism was found to be an independent predictor of poststroke cognitive impairment.
    CONCLUSIONS:
    Our results suggest that bilingualism leads to a better cognitive outcome after stroke, possibly by enhancing cognitive reserve.


    Tweetalige mensen herstellen beter van beroerte.
    Tweetalige mensen hebben twee keer meer kans om te herstellen van een beroerte, dan mensen die maar één taal spreken. Dat concluderen onderzoekers van de Universiteit van Edinburgh. Zij onderzochten 608 patieënten die een beroerte hebben gehad en ontdekten dat 40 procent van de tweetalige patiënten, na verloop van tijd weer 'normaal' functioneerden. Bij patiënten die slechts één taal spreken, was dit een op de vijf.
    De resultaten zijn opvallend omdat lang is gedacht dat het kunnen spreken van meerdere talen, niet relevant was voor de gezondheid. Dit onderzoek lijkt aan te tonen dat tweetaligheid de hersenen beschermt tegen vernietigende schade, schrijft The Telegraph.
    Hoofdonderzoeker Thomas Bak: "Tweetaligheid zorgt ervoor dat mensen kunnen omschakelen van de ene naar de andere taal. Deze omschakeling is een praktische manier van je hersenen trainen, iets wat van pas komt als je moet herstellen van een beroerte."
    Hetzelfde onderzoeksteam ontdekte eerder dat mensen die meer talen spreken op latere leeftijd dementie ontwikkelen, dan degene die één taal spreken.